3-FPM crystal rocks – More information
3-Fluorophenmetrazine (also known as 3F-Phenmetrazine, PAL-593, and 3-FPM) is a novel stimulant substance of the phenylmorpholine class. 3-FPM is a derivative of phenmetrazine, a once-popular stimulant substance that was clinically used as an anorectic in Europe in the 1950s. It produces its activity by increasing the levels of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine in the brain.
The synthesis and pharmacology of 3-FPM was first reported in a patent filed in 2011. Reports of human use first surfaced in early 2015 after it appeared for sale on the online research chemical market.
User reports indicate that 3-FPM produces classical stimulant effects comparable to those of amphetamine. Common effects include stimulation, enhanced focus and motivation, thought acceleration, and euphoria. Many reports describe 3-FPM as having a relatively subtle and controlled stimulant effect which produces less nervousness, insomnia and euphoria than other stimulants, which makes it suitable as a study-aid or productivity-enhancer.
Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of 3-FPM. Due to the lack of information on its properties, it is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.
|Common names||3-FPM, PAL-593|
|Chemical class||Amphetamine / Phenylmorpholine|
3-FPM dosage table
|Threshold||5 – 10 mg|
|Light||10 – 20 mg|
|Common||20 – 35 mg|
|Strong||35 – 50 mg|
|Heavy||50 mg +|
3-FPM effect progress
|Total||3 – 6 hours|
|After effects||30 – 90 minutes|
3-Fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM) is a synthetic molecule of the amphetamine family. Molecules of the amphetamine class contain a phenethylamine core featuring a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain with an additional methyl substitution at Rα. Amphetamines are alpha-methylated phenethylamines. 3-FPM contains a fluorine atom attached at R3 of the phenyl ring. Additionally, part of its amphetamine skeleton is incorporated into a morpholine ring. At R2 of its chain, an oxygen group is bound — this oxygen group is linked by an ethyl chain to the terminal amine of the amphetamine chain to form a morpholine group. 3-FPM is a fluorinated derivative of phenmetrazine.
The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 3-FPM use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because 3-FPM has very little history of human usage.
Anecdotal evidence suggests that 3-FPM is relatively well-tolerated, with most users encountering few side-effects at low to moderate doses. However, several users have encountered serious flu-like symptoms on the comedown of 3-FPM, consisting of muscle and joint aches, fever and chills, and headaches, sometimes with migraine auras present. This is speculated to be systemic inflammation induced by 3-FPM. Therefore new users should exercise great caution in dosing to gauge their own physiological response to 3-FPM.
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.
As with other stimulants, the chronic use of 3-FPM can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.
Tolerance to many of the effects of 3-FPM develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 – 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 – 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 3-FPM presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of 3-FPM all stimulants will have a reduced effect.