A-PVP crystal rocks – More information
alpha-Pyrrolidinovalerophenone (also known as α-PVP, A-PVP, alpha-PVP, and flakka) is a novel stimulant substance of the cathinone class. α-PVP is chemically related to prolintane and belongs to a group called the substituted cathinones, which includes compounds like MDPV, hexen, and a-PHP. It acts as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor.
α-PVP was patented in the 1960s by Boehringer Ingelheim, although it was never marketed. Reports of its use began to appear in the early 2010s. α-PVP has been subject to much scrutiny by the media as one of the ingredients found in “bath salts” or “legal highs” products. It has been mass produced in China and sold online as a research chemical. It has been linked to numerous hospitalizations and overdose deaths.
User reports indicate that α-PVP produces powerful but short-lived stimulant effects comparable to those of methamphetamine and cocaine when insufflated or vaporized. Commonly reported effects include stimulation, disinhibition, increased libido, compulsive redosing, and euphoria. Like other synthetic cathinones, α-PVP is associated with compulsive use and addiction.
Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of a-PVP. Due to its potent psychostimulant effects and unknown toxicity profile, it is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using with this substance.
|Common names||α-PVP, alpha-PVP, Flakka, O-2387, β-ketone-prolintane, Prolintanone|
|Chemical class||Cathinone / Pyrrolidinophenone|
A-PVP dosage table
|Threshold||0.5 – 1 mg|
|Light||1 – 5 mg|
|Common||5 – 15 mg|
|Strong||15 – 25 mg|
|Heavy||25 mg +|
A-PVP effect progress
|Total||2 – 5 hours|
|Offset||30 – 90 minutes|
|After effects||2 – 4 hours|
α-PVP, or alpha-Pyrrolidinovalerophenone, is a synthetic substance belonging to a group called the substituted cathinones. Substituted cathinones are derivatives of the naturally occurring substance cathinone, which is one of the psychoactive principles in khat (Catha edullis). Cathinone is composed of a phenethylamine core with an alkyl group attached to the alpha carbon, and a ketone group attached to the beta carbon. α-PVP’s structure consists of a cathinone core with a propyl group substituted at the alpha carbon, and a pyrrolidine ring at the amino group.
The hydrochloride salt of α-PVP is described as a white or off-white, odourless crystalline powder, with a melting point of 161.3°C. It is reported to be soluble in PBS (~10mg/ml, pH7.2), in EtOH (~20mg/ml), in DMSO (~10mg/ml) and in DMF (~3mg/ml).
The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational α-PVP use do not appear to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because α-PVP has very little history of human usage.
Anecdotal reports suggest that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this substance at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be guaranteed).
α-PVP has been reported to be the cause, or a significant contributory cause, of death in suicides and overdoses caused by combinations of drugs. α-PVP has also been linked to at least one death where it was combined with pentedrone and caused heart failure.
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.
As with other stimulants, the chronic use of α-PVP can be considered highly addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.
Tolerance to many of the effects of α-PVP develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 – 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 – 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). α-PVP produces cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of α-PVP all stimulants will have a reduced effect.
α-PVP, like other stimulants, can result in a stimulant psychosis that may present with a variety of symptoms (e.g., paranoia, hallucinations, or delusions). A review on treatment for amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine abuse-induced psychosis states that about 5–15% of users fail to recover completely. The same review asserts that, based upon at least one trial, antipsychotic medications effectively resolve the symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis.
Serotonin syndrome risk
Combinations with the following substances can cause dangerously high serotonin levels. Serotonin syndrome requires immediate medical attention and can be fatal if left untreated.