Alprazolam pellets 0.5 mg – More information
Like other benzodiazepines, alprazolam binds to specific sites on the GABAA receptor. It is commonly used for the medical treatment of panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), or social anxiety disorder (SAD).
Alprazolam has a fast onset of action and symptomatic relief. Ninety percent of peak effects are achieved within the first hour of using in preparation for panic disorder and full peak effects are achieved in 1.5 and 1.6 hours respectively. Peak benefits achieved for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) may take up to a week.
The sudden discontinuation of benzodiazepines can be potentially dangerous or life-threatening for individuals using regularly for extended periods of time, sometimes resulting in seizures or death. It is highly recommended to taper one’s dose by gradually lowering the amount taken each day for a prolonged period of time instead of stopping abruptly.
|Common names||Xanax, Alprazolam|
Alprazolam dosage table
|Threshold||0.10 – 0.25 mg|
|Light||0.25 – 0.5 mg|
|Common||0.5 – 1.5 mg|
|Strong||1.5 – 2 mg|
|Heavy||2 – 3 mg +|
Alprazolam effect progress
|Total||5 – 8 hours|
|Offset||2 – 6 hours|
|After effects||6 – 24 hours|
Alprazolam is a drug of the benzodiazepine class. Benzodiazepine drugs contain a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring, which is a seven membered ring with the two nitrogen constituents located at R1 and R4. The benzyl ring of alprazolam is substituted at R8 with a chlorine group. Further, the diazepine ring is bonded at R5 to a phenyl ring. Alprazolam also contains a 1-methylated triazole ring fused to and incorporating R1 and R2 of its diazepine ring. Alprazolam belongs to a class of benzodiazepines containing this fused triazole ring, called triazolobenzodiazepines, distinguished by the suffix “-zolam”.
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.
The acute oral LD50 in rats is 331–2171 mg/kg. Other experiments in animals have indicated that cardiopulmonary collapse can occur following massive intravenous doses of alprazolam.
Alprazolam is extremely physically and psychologically addictive.
Tolerance will develop to the sedative-hypnotic effects within a couple of days of continuous use. After cessation, the tolerance returns to baseline in 7-14 days. However, in certain cases, this may take significantly longer in a manner which is proportional to the duration and intensity of one’s long-term usage.
Alprazolam presents cross-tolerance with all benzodiazepines, meaning that after its consumption all benzodiazepines will have a reduced effect.
Benzodiazepine overdose may occur with extremely high doses or, more commonly, when it is taken with other depressants. This risk is especially present with other GABAergic depressants, such as barbiturates and alcohol, since they work in a similar fashion but bind to distinct sites on the GABAA receptor, resulting in significant cross-potentiation.
Benzodiazepine overdose is a medical emergency that may lead to a coma, permanent brain injury or death if not treated promptly. Symptoms may include severe slurred speech, confusion, delusions, respiratory depression, and non-responsiveness. The user might seem like they are sleepwalking. The user is also more susceptible to consume more of the same or another substance due to their impaired judgement, which is typically not seen with other substances during overdose.
Benzodiazepine overdoses may be treated effectively in a hospital environment, with generally favorable outcomes. Care is primarily supportive in nature, although overdoses are sometimes treated with flumazenil, a GABAA antagonist or additional procedures such as adrenaline injections if other substances are involved.
Benzodiazepine discontinuation is notoriously difficult; it is potentially life-threatening for individuals using regularly to discontinue use without tapering their dose over a period of weeks. There is an increased risk of high blood pressure, seizures, and death. Substances which lower the seizure threshold such as tramadol should be avoided during withdrawal. Abrupt discontinuation also causes rebound stimulation which presents as anxiety, insomnia and restlessness.
If one wishes to discontinue after a period of regular use, it is safest to reduce the dose each day by a very small amount for a couple of weeks until close to abstinence. If using a short half-life benzodiazepine such as alprazolam or etizolam, a longer acting variety such as diazepam or clonazepam can be substituted. Symptoms may still be present, but their severity will be reduced significantly.
For more information on tapering from benzodiazepines in a controlled manner, please see this guide. Small quantities of alcohol can also help to reduce the symptoms, but otherwise cannot be used as an effective tapering agent.
The duration and severity of withdrawal symptoms depend on a number of factors including the half-life of the substance used, tolerance and the duration of abuse. Major symptoms will usually start within just a few days after discontinuation and persist for around a week for shorter lasting benzodiazepines. Benzodiazepines with longer half-lives will exhibit withdrawal symptoms with a slow onset and extended duration.
Internationally, alprazolam is included under the United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances as Schedule IV.