MDPV crystal rocks – More information
3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (also known as MDPV, NRG-1, and imprecisely as Bath Salts, among many others) is a novel, extremely potent synthetic stimulant substance of the cathinone and pyrrolidine chemical classes that produces states of extreme stimulant euphoria, disinhibition, and sexual arousal when administered. MDPV is thought to act primarily as a norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI) and possesses powerful euphoric stimulant qualities. It was first developed in the 1960s by a team at Boehringer Ingelheim.
MDPV remained an obscure stimulant until around 2004, when it was reportedly first made available to the public as a designer drug. Products labeled as “bath salts” containing MDPV were previously sold as recreational drugs in gas stations and convenience stores in the United States, similar to the marketing strategy of Spice and K2 as incense.
Historical reports show records of the preparation of MDPV for potential use as a CNS stimulant. It was claimed to have potential to be an alternative for racemic amphetamine and, although showing some desirable qualities such as reduced toxicity as compared to amphetamine, MDPV was chosen to not be developed as a medicinal drug.
Several incidents of psychological and physical harm have been attributed to the use of MDPV, including an unusually large number of fatalities. A total of 107 non-fatal intoxications and 99 analytically confirmed deaths related to MDPV between September 2009 and August 2013 were reported by nine European countries.
|MDPV, “Bath Salts”, NRG-1
|Cathinone / MDxx / Pyrrolidinophenone
MDPV dosage table
|2 – 4 mg
|4 – 8 mg
|8 – 14 mg
|14 – 25 mg
|25 mg +
MDPV effect progress
|2 – 7 hours
|0.5 – 2 hours
|2 – 48 hours
MDPV, or 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone, is a synthetic stimulant of the cathinone and pyrrolidine classes. MDPV is the 3,4-methylenedioxy ring-substituted analog of the compound a-PVP, developed in the 1960s, which has been used for the treatment of chronic fatigue and as an anorectic, but caused problems of abuse and dependence. However, despite some shared structural features, the effects of MDPV bear little resemblance to other methylenedioxy phenylalkylamine derivatives such as 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA), instead producing primarily classical stimulant effects with only mild entactogenic qualities.
MDPV has a relatively short history of human use, with very few mentions concerning the use thereof before 2004. Although once considered a potential alternative to existing stimulants with a lower risk for toxicity, human MDPV administration has not been extensively studied in a clinical setting for many decades. Despite this, several recent studies on cases of persisting psychosis caused by chronic use of MDPV show promising rates of recovery among individuals who are treated with certain antipsychotics and first-line antihistamines. There is currently no conclusive data concerning the neurotoxicity of MDPV in the human brain.
Anecdotal evidence from those who have tried MDPV in the community suggest that there are no negative health effects associated with the substance if simply taken at low doses by itself and when used sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).
Data taken from in-vitro and in-vivo studies have indicated that MDPV shares similar properties to methamphetamine and cocaine; in fact, MDPV is more potent than these two stimulants in a number of varying ways. The over-excitation of dopamine and noradrenaline caused by MDPV use, combined with MDPV’s potential inability to create compensatory serotonergic activity, sets the stage for a number of hostile and psychotic reactions to the drug. These hostile tendencies have been witnessed in emergency response situations, and have also seen wide television coverage in the past, after an individual under the influence of MDPV viciously assaulted an innocent bystander. It is uncertain if the individual had any pre-existing mental disorders or if he was under the influence of any other drugs.
The exact lethal dosage of MDPV is unknown and no formal studies have been carried out in humans. For sake of reference, one report placed the lethal dosage for a 39 year old male at 0.4 micrograms per millilitre or greater following the results of a post mortem, but this data is far too individually unique and the variables simply too diverse to derive any kind of meaningful information from it. MDPV may be quantified in blood, plasma or urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in hospitalized patients or to provide evidence in a medicolegal death investigation. Blood or plasma MDPV concentrations are expected to be in a range of 10–50 μg/L in persons using the drug recreationally, >50 μg/L in intoxicated patients, and >300 μg/L in victims of acute overdose.
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.
More so than other stimulants, the chronic use of MDPV can be considered highly addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage. Addiction is a serious risk among users of MDPV as it easily causes compulsive redosing and causes highly unpleasant comedown symptoms.
User reports indicate that chronic abuse or single exposure overdose of MDPV can potentially lead to psychosis more readily than the vast majority of stimulants. Psychotic symptoms from MDPV can include hearing voices, visual hallucinations, urges to harm oneself, severe anxiety, mania, grandiosity, paranoid delusions, confusion, increased aggression, and irritability.